Conventional Karyotyping and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for Detection of Chromosomal Abnormalities in Multiple Myeloma

Matthew Crabtree, Jennifer Cai, Xin Qing


Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a genetically heterogeneous disease, with cytogenetic findings that determine disease behavior. Genetic abnormalities can be assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and/or G-banded karyotyping. The two methods produce unique and overlapping information, and the clinical utility of using both is investigated here.

Methods: Seventy patients diagnosed with MM at a hospital in Southern California were retrospectively reviewed for the FISH and G-banded karyotyping results obtained from bone marrow specimens.

Results: Karyotype was normal in 71% (50/70), abnormal in 27% (19/70), and inadequate in 1% (1/70). Among patients with abnormal karyotype, FISH provided additional information about genetic aberrations in 95% of cases (18/19). Among cases with abnormal FISH, karyotype provided additional information about genetic aberrations in 27% of cases (18/66). When numerical abnormalities were present (detected by FISH and/or karyotype), FISH detected them in 95% (54/57), of which karyotype missed 70% (38/54) of the time. Karyotyping detected numerical abnormalities in 33% (19/57), which FISH missed 16% (3/19) of the time.

Conclusions: Karyotyping and FISH analysis in MM each provide unique information. For most patients, performing both tests together will provide more information than either test alone.

J Hematol. 2022;11(3):87-91


Multiple myeloma; Cytogenetics; FISH; Karyotype

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