Middle Meningeal Artery Embolization in Acute Leukemia Patients Presenting With Subdural Hematoma

Binoy Yohannan, Juan Carlos Martinez Gutierrez, Peng Roc Chen, Adan Rios


Intracerebral hemorrhage is a potentially fatal complication in patients with acute leukemia and contributing factors include thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. Patients with acute leukemia may develop subdural hematoma (SDH) spontaneously or secondary to trauma. In patients with acute leukemia and SDH, the surgical evacuation of the hematoma causes significant morbidity and mortality. New approaches and strategies to reduce the need for surgical evacuation are needed to improve outcomes in patients with acute leukemia and intracerebral hemorrhage. We report two cases of acute SDH in patients with acute leukemia successfully treated with middle meningeal artery embolization, a minimally invasive interventional radiology technique, obviating the need for a surgical intervention. The first patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) presented with coagulopathy and developed an acute SDH after a fall. The second patient with acute myeloid leukemia presented with gum bleeding and also sustained an acute SDH after a fall. Both patients underwent middle meningeal artery embolization for treating their SDHs while actively receiving induction chemotherapy for acute leukemia. Both patients had resolution of their acute SDH and are in remission from their acute leukemia. Middle meningeal artery embolization is a very effective, and within the context of this setting, a novel, minimally invasive technique for management of SDH in acute leukemia patients, which can prevent the need for surgical interventions with its associated comorbidities and high risk of fatal outcomes in patients with acute leukemia and acute SDH.

J Hematol. 2024;13(1-2):39-45
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jh1215


Acute leukemia; Subdural hematoma; Middle meningeal artery embolization

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