Reduce Mortality and Morbidity in Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Hyperleukocytosis With Early Admission in Intensive Care Unit: A Retrospective Analysis

Nathan Mottal, Nahema Issa, Pierre-Yves Dumas, Fabrice Camou, Mathieu Sauvezie, Francois-Xavier Gros, Titouan Cazaubiel, Gaelle Mourissoux, Harmony Leroy, Arnaud Pigneux, Olivier Guisset, Thibaut Leguay


Background: Patients presenting with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at diagnosis are at high risk of severe complications and death, particularly with high white blood cell (WBC) count. In this retrospective study, we evaluate interest of early and systematic support in the intensive care unit (ICU) for AML with hyperleukocytosis (AML-HL) at diagnosis.

Methods: Patients with AML-HL, defined by WBC > 50/span>109/L, primary referred in ICU (“Early ICU”) without organ failure and before initiating chemotherapy induction were compared to patients first admitted in the Hematology Department who required a secondary transfer in ICU (Late ICU) or not (No ICU). Primary end point was mortality during the first month, and secondary end points were the use of life-sustaining therapies in ICU and risk factors for ICU transfer and mortality.

Results: One hundred fifty-four patients were included: 77 (50%) to the group No ICU, 18 (12%) to “Late ICU” and 59 (38%) to Early ICU. Mortality at day 30 was higher in “Late ICU” than in "Early ICU" and "No ICU", with 27.8%; 16.9% and 2.6% respectively (P < 0.001). "Late ICU" patients had an increased use of life-sustaining therapy comparing to "Early ICU" patients (56% vs. 29%, P = 0.04).

Conclusions: Early referral to ICU reduces morbidity and seems an effective strategy to reduce short-term mortality in AML-HL at diagnosis.

J Hematol. 2020;9(4):109-115


Acute myeloid leukemia; Hyperleukocytosis; Intensive care unit; Mortality

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