Impact of Cytogenetic Abnormalities, Induction and Maintenance Regimens on Outcomes After High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma: A Decade-Long Real-World Experience

Aswani Thurlapati, William Wesson, James A. Davis, Kelly J. Gaffney, Erin Weeda, Arash Velayati, Jonathan K. Bakos, Katelynn Granger, Deidra Smith, Andy P. Maldonado, Taylor Herrington, Julia Potts, Hamza Hashmi


Background: High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant (HDT-ASCT) has become a standard of care for transplant eligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) patients. While cytogenetic abnormalities have been shown to affect outcomes after HDT-ASCT in clinical trials, these trials often exclude or underrepresent elderly patients with comorbidities and those belonging to ethnic minorities. We describe our institutional experience highlighting the impact of high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities (HRCAs) on outcomes after HDT-ASCT for NDMM patients.

Methods: A total of 449 patients with NDMM who underwent HDT-ASCT between February 2012 and August 2022 were included in this retrospective analysis. HRCAs included the presence of one or more of: deletion 17p, t(14;16), t(4;14), and amplification 1q. Survival analyses, including progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), were performed using Kaplan-Meier estimator.

Results: With a median follow-up of 29 (1 - 128) months for the entire patient population, the best overall response rate for the patients with HRCAs was lower compared to those with standard risk cytogenetics (90% vs. 96%; P = 0.01). Patients with HRCAs had an inferior PFS compared to patients with standard-risk cytogenetics (29 vs. 58 months; P < 0.001) without a difference in OS (70 months vs. not reached; P = 0.13).

Conclusions: In a multivariable analysis adjusting for factors including age, race, and comorbidities, HRCAs, non-lenalidomide-based maintenance, non-proteasome inhibitor-based maintenance, and age greater than 65 were associated with inferior PFS. Amongst these factors, only non-lenalidomide-based maintenance was associated with inferior OS.

J Hematol. 2023;12(6):243-254


Myeloma; High-dose therapy; Transplant; High risk; Cytogenetics; Lenalidomide; Proteasome inhibitor

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