Does ABO Blood Groups Affect Outcomes in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients?

Gagan Kumar, Rahul Nanchal, Martin Hererra, Ankit Sakhuja, Dhaval Patel, Mark Meersman, Drew Dalton, Achuta Kumar Guddati


Background: Blood group type A has been associated with increased susceptibility for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection when compared to group O. The aim of our study was to examine outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients among blood groups A and O.

Methods: This is an observational study. Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-square tests were used to compare continuous and categorical variables. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine association of blood groups with rates of mortality and severity of disease. All adult patients (> 18 years) admitted with COVID-19 infection between March 1, 2020 and March 10, 2021 at a large community hospital in Northeast Georgia were included. We compared mortality, severity of disease (use of mechanical ventilation, vasopressor, and acute renal failure), rates of venous thromboembolism and inflammatory markers between the blood groups. We used multivariable logistic regression model to adjust for demographical and clinical characteristics, use of COVID-19 medications and severity.

Results: A total of 3,563 of 5,204 admitted patients had information on blood groups. Of these, 1,301 (36.5%) were group A, 377 (10.6 %) were group B, 133 (3.7%) were group AB and 1,752 (49.2%) were group O. On adjusted analysis, there were no significant differences in rates of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, acute renal failure, venous thromboembolism and readmission rate between the blood groups A and O. In-hospital mortality was also not statistically different among the blood groups A and O (17.5% vs. 20.1%; P = 0.07). On adjusted analysis, in-hospital mortality was not lower in blood groups O (odds ratio (OR): 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80 - 1.40, P = 0.70).

Conclusions: Once hospitalized with COVID-19 infection, blood groups A and O are not associated with increased severity or in-hospital mortality.

J Hematol. 2021;10(3):98-105


COVID-19; ABO blood group; In-hospital mortality

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